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Battle Of Makawanpur Gadhi During Anglo-Nepal War

Dr. Prem Singh Basnyat

Makawanpur Gadhi is an important fort in the Nepalese history. The Sen dynasty ruled over the area from this Gadhi and the Royal Nepalese Army fought an offensive battle against the Sen. The fort is on top of the mountain in the Gadhi Village, Ward No. 3 of Makawanpur Gadhi VDC, Makawanpur district. Its height above the sea level is 1035 metres. It dominates the southern and southwestern parts in an open area with cultivated land and scanty urban areas. Its tactical value is still important as it is near the Kanti Rajpath.

Topography i[i]

The fort area is mountainous and undulating and the southern part has vertical cliffs whilst on the other sides are gentle plain. Features are developed in gradual height form south to north. The grounds are made of strong rocks and compact soil and there is little chance of landslides, unless and until men spoil the natural surroundings. Trenches, fire pit and bunkers can be built in that area, as there is compact but soft soil to the northern area. Some cultivated land is near the fort area and there are some rivulets, which are dry in winter. This is not a problem for infantry. Samari River to its north is about seven kilometres down and is obstacle in rainy season. The next, Karra River is in its southwestern side, which is also obstacle only in the rainy season.

The Makawanpur Village and Phurke gorge to the south, Chaughada and Hetauda to the West, Dhunge Gadhi to the East and Samari in the North are the major localities. There is scanty forestation there due to urbanization. Some Saal trees are in the southern belt, but it doesn't obstruct military operations. The Kanti Highway is the nearest highway and is not pitched but it is all weather motorable roads. Chaughada - Phaparbari, Tribhuvan Highways are the other important roads and there are many local tracks. They do cause confusion in military operations. The nearest army barracks are at Suparitar and Bhaise.

The Gadhi area itself is not so fertile land, yet it is cultivated. Hetauda, Chaughada and Makawanpur Villages can supply enough ration items to the army. There are many factories and small industries in Hetauda area. Where people are employed. These factories can help in ration, drinking items, construction materials, clothing etc. The nearest airfield is Simara Airport. It has only day-service facility Avro plane operating. A very suitable DZ is available in the southern plain area, which is only 5 kilometres distant.

The weather is good in general, neither cold and nor hot. Cloud disturbs in the rainy season only otherwise, there is no major problem. Good observation is possible all around. Some defaulted grounds are found downward to the south of the fort so it should be controlled by separate troops for observation. Any type of weapons is suitable for delivery of fire. Plunging fire may take place from a flat trajectory weapon. [ii] The difficult and vertical cliffs and broken tracks are main obstacles of the area. Gadhi (big) itself is the main key terrain and Makawanpur Gadhi small is the next important feature. Dhunge Gadhi is in higher position and about 5 kilometres far away from the east. There are many possible avenues of approach. A few of them are considered as important:-
(1) (1) South western: Churia dada - Karra River - Chaughada - Chuchche khola - Gairigaon - Chaundada - Forest - sikhar kateri - Dharampuri - Pauwadada - Barbhanjyang and Gadhi. (2) (2) North-eastern: Tika Bhairav - Lapse - Kotdada - Tinpane Bhanjyang - Nayagaon - Jhankridada - Habeli - Simle- Baguwa - Bagmati- Bharyang dada - Pratapdada - Gangate - Thingan- Tallo simal - Simat Khola - Gatle pakha - Sirudada - Jitpur- Madare - Andheri - Taplakhar and Gadhi. [1]

Makawanpur Gadhi (Small)

The Fort Makawanpur Gadhi (small) lies in Gadhi village, Ward No. 3 of Makawanpur Gadhi VDC, Makawanpur district. It has historical and tactical relation with Makawanpur Gadhi (big). It is about 800 meters down of the western part of the big fort. The area is a small plateau on mountainous ridgeline and runs in an east to west direction. The southern part has a vertical and gentle slope to its northern area. Some houses lie to its western and northern sides. It is a cultivated area and Tamangs are the main inhabitants of the area.

The ground is undulating and opens and has a continuous ridgeline from the big fort. The southern part is vertical with scanty forest and the surface is made of compact soil and stones. There is no chance of landslides or other calamities unless and until men interfere with the natural setting. Other qualities are similar to the big Gadhi (fort) except its shape, size, ground and tactical importance. [iii] Many tracks and a motor able road exist in the nearby area.

The fort is long in length but short in breadth and it is not as strong as the big one. There is only one foundation is there and a ditch obstacle but its defensive potentiality is less than that of the bigger one. It has its own identity as is evident by its structure but no historian has mentioned its shape, size and history. At one time 150 persons can operate their respective operation from the fort. High and flat trajectory weapons can be fired from the position. The fort was built like the big fort in architecture. It is also without security and preservation of HMG and the fort is decaying day by day.

Other Important Aspects

There are not many petrographs. Certain inscribed letters are discernible in old bell in Vansagopal (Krishna) temple. The inscription is "Only the bell, minister…. Manik Sen" which is illegible. [iv] Likewise some sentences inscribed in stone slab read "the year 1965 month of Jestha Monday 28th , …. dedicated to Lord Vansagopal". [v] Two long barracks type buildings (local people say that it was the palace) are in a ruined condition with one in each building line. Other significant aspects are:-

(1) (1) Vansagopal (Krishna) Temple: The temple is very old. It is 4 X 4 meters long and breadth and height is 2.60 metres. The image of Standing Vansagopal in chains is there. The image is most probably chained to prevent theft but people believed that Vansagopal is a real god and he used to visit around Makawanpur and Chitawon valley and was lost for several days. However he always came back in the same position. While he went outside, he used to destroy much public property for fun. [vi]
(2) (2) Mahadev Temple: The temple is also very old one, and lies in the southwest corner of the Fort. It is 3.35 X 2.25 metres in length and breadth and 2.30 metres height.

(3) (3) The Well: There are two wells to the eastern and the western parts as well as at the far end of the ruined buildings, which were made for water reserve tanks for emergency use.

The fort is built of strong well-cut stones, with flat and strong bricks of wood, and mortar. It looks like that of Mughal fort style in India. It is heavily damaged and many parts of it are in ruins. The fort is guarded by the Royal Nepalese Army troops. However, HMG has not paid attention to its maintenance, as they are passive. There were 13 cannons including Kali-top up until 2033 BS (1976 AD). Later they were taken to Kathmandu. [vii] The Sena kings had many palaces in Ratmate Pallochhap, Mathillochhap area, which are about 1000 metres northeast of the fort. There are many ruined buildings and old type of bricks are lying on the ground and now, most of the area is covered with forest. The next small fort is about 900 metres down to the western part. It strengthens the large fort but other out-posts and defensive positions need to be made for suitable for defensive battles in and around the fort.

Historical and Military Value

Mukunda Sen I was the King of Palpa state and he was a brave and popular king. Later he was called MANI MUKUNDA SEN due to his ability. Palpa was a large state as well as strong one for military assistance. Even the King Ratna Malla of Kantipur asked for military assistance against Tibetan offensive and Mukunda Sen provided the help and Tibetans were defeated. [viii] He was very powerful King but he divided his state into many principalities for his sons and nephews. This was his mistake to split-up the Kingdom for the interest of his sons and nephews. Accordingly, the youngest son Lohang Sen was given Makawanpur as an independent state, which extended up to Morang and Vijaypur. Manik Sen II was the King of Makawanpur and Mahipati Sen of Vijaypur. [ix] Many battles were fought between those brother royalties for territorial expansion during the 17th century. So the Sen kings made the fort for their defensive battle in need. A renowned architect named Narabir Mahat constructed the Fort and King Tula Sen awarded him 31 bighas of fertile land in Makawanpur area. The Mahat family still exists in that area. [x]

King Hemkarna Sen, son of Tula Sen, was the father-in-law of the King Prithvi Narayan Shah. He built several other forts and temples. Dhunge Gadhi, Dhaduwa Gadhi, and Bhote Kot were other famous forts at that time. [xi] A larger fort called Mul Gadhi was built near Junge Darbar and the remnants of the fort and palace were still there 40 years later but it is now totally ruined. [xii] Dhunge Gadhi is located at 1.5-kilometres (uphill) southeast from Junge Darbhar. Makanpur Gadhi area was surrounded by many private buildings and 99 houses were gutted by fire in 1996 BS (1939 AD) [xiii] A high cliff is located in the southern part of the Gadhi and many personnel, culprits and even soldiers used to leap to death from that cliff because of their guilt. Some women and harem girls (of the King) were captured by the Nepalese army, during the battle of Makawanpur and Gorkha. [xiv] According to the time, if the victors captured the family of the defeated, they were used as comfort girls or slaves of the victors in the battle.

Makawanpur State was very rich plain and mountainous land and it was strong financially. Many dominated mountains with Makawanpur Gadhi, Chaisapani Gadhi, Dhunge Gadhi, Hariharpur Gadhi, Mul Gadhi, Bhote Kot (Gadhi) were the important features from military point of view. Makawanpur Gadhi itself was in the bottleneck of Thori-karra - Dhunge Gadhi and Patan axis. There was good agriculture and lots of Saal trees and other wood that provided a good income source to the nation. It was the neighbour of India and was on a flourishing Silk Road between India-Makawanpur-Kathmandu valley and Tibet. Therefore, Makawanpur was a focal point of the area. Many cattle tracks, mule tracks and other paths connected with the Kathmandu valley from Makawanpur State. Later, it could not control access for trade and transit with the Kathmandu valley.

At that time, the Nepalese unification campaign was going on and King Prithvi Narayan Shah laid siege and blocked the Kathmandu valley from its northern and southern belts. Great hardships were faced by the Malla states, which had to survive in illegal and secret trade & transits with the Makawanpur traders. Prithvi Narayan remained quiet until his fathers-in-law's death in 1759 AD. When Digbandhan Sen (brother-in -law of Prithvi Narayan Shah) became the king, he openly challenged Prithvi Narayan and started trade with the Malla states. This was the insult and challenge to Prithvi Narayan so Prithvi Narayan Shah made strong war readily and battle was imminent. Prithvi Narayan and his subordinate commanders made an attack plan mentioned below: [xv]

  1. The main attack base (firm base) was fixed in Dahachok (Kathmandu) and it was the rear headquarters of the Nepalese army. King Prithvi Narayan Shah himself was planning and instructing the battle.
  2. The distance between Dahachok and Makawanpur Durbar was approximately 55 kilometres, which was within a walking distance. Except a few commanders, all of the troops marched with their weapons and ammunitions, and extra ammunitions and traditional weapons. Rations were transported by Thaple Hulak (Man pack basis).
  3. The axis of advance was Dahachok-Mahabharat range- Tekan Bhanjyang-Khundedhar and Makawanpur Gadhi. An initial recce and information collection was done by the Gorkha army for its physical security on the way of advance.
  4. Makawanpur was a fairly strong state, so Prithvi Narayan Shah made a viable and practical attack plan against Digbandhan Sena. Many experienced princes namely, Mahoddamkirti Shah, Surapratap Shah, Dalamardhan Shah, Rana Rudra Shah, Nandu Shah and (Sripali Basnyat family) Kaji Kehar Singh Basnyat, Kaji Nahar Singh Basnyat , Kaji Abhimanshing Basnyat and Kaji Vamsa Raj Pandey were detailed for offensive operation.
  • About 1100 fighting troops were detailed for the operation. They had to take harbouring (night halt) in three places. Then the Gorkha army encircled the Makawanpur fort by first light in 20th Aughust 1762. The operation was done as per their plan without their enemy noticing. [xvi]

  • King Digbandhan Sen and his minister Kanak Shing Baniya were ready for defensive battle against Gorkhali. They had already sent their families to a safer area before the encirclement of the fort. They had no battle confidence though their defensive position was very strong. The Grokha army launched an attack on first light of 21st August 1762 and the battle lasted for eight hours. Hariharpur Gadhi was confirmed for Makawanpur's contingency position as the next defensive battle. About 400 Makawanpur soldiers were killed and 70 of the Nepalese army lost their lives. King Digbandhan and his minister Kanak Nidhi escaped to Hariharpur Gadhi and Makawanpur was annexed to Nepal. [xvii]

    Battle against Mir Kasim's Military Expedition

    The fort of Makawanpur has historical and military significance with the Nepalese people. The battle against Mirkasim's troops was the first battle of the Gorkha army (later Royal Nepalese Army) against, a foreign power. The Nepalese army killed many foreign soldiers and seized many weapons e.g. approximately 500 guns and 2 cannons. Later those weapons were given to the Nepalese troops and four companies were formed formally with those weapons eg. Srinath, Kalibox, Barda Bahadur (Bardabani) and Sabuj. Purano Gorakh Company was established after few months. It was also the first history of rank and file system with weapons in Royal Nepalese Army organsition. [xviii] So it has a deep relation with Royal Nepalese Army and its development.

    The East India Company was colonizing India and the native states resulting in the loss of their independence. It was a big problem to those small states, as they did not have a cooperative attitude and coordination among themselves. The British were taking advantage of this disunity and accordingly, the Nawab of Bengal lost his throne in the battle of Plassey in 1757 AD with East India Company. The British made a puppet Nawab Mir Jafer in 1757 and Mir Kassim replaced later Mir Jafar in 1760 AD. He felt a big humiliated and started collecting money and organised a strong army against the British. An army technician named GREGARI was employed in the arsenal (for manufacturing guns and cannons) and he manufactured several weapons. Afterward, he was named GURGIN KHAN in Muslim language. He became the Army commander of Mir kasim. In the mean time, the former vanquished king of Makawanpur Digbadhan Sen had sent his minister to seek the assistance with Mirkasim against the Gorkhali army. Mirksim and Gurgin Khan both were ready to help and their main aim was to test the ability of their military power and hope of amassing huge property too from Makawanpur Gadhi.

    Relative Strength of the Force Nepal
    1. Sardar Nandu Shah was the fort commander with approximately 400 troops in Makawanpur Gadhi.
    2. They had very few guns as well as homemade traditional weapons eg. Dhanu, Khukuri, Talwar, Ghuyantro etc.
    3. Their tactics were defensive-offensive with different guerrilla approaches. Their main aim was to launch a spoiling attack and give a surprise to the enemy.
    4. They had spoiling attack base in Taplakhar mountain ridgeline with night operation.

    Gurgin Khan
    1. Gurgin Khan was the commander with approximately 2500 soldiers. But Somdhoj Bista has given the figure as 6000 troops. [xix]
    2. They had many local guides and arranged very good logistic supports.
    3. They had cannons, guns, ammunition, and traditional local made weapons too.
    4. They had an (forward assembly area) attack base at the bottom of Makawanpur Gadhi ridgeline with attack plan but without contingency plan.

    The Battle

    The enemy's heavy force-marched in December 1762 and they arrived at Harnamadi in January 1763. All the local houses were evacuated by the order of the Nepalese army and there was a shortage of food provisions, which became serious problem to the enemy. Makawanpur Gadhi was on top of ridgeline and it was approximately 9 kilometres uphill walking from the Harnamadi area. The Gorkha army had physically occupied all the Mul Gadhi, Dhunge Gadhi, Dhaduwa Gadhi, Bhote Gadhi and Makawanpur Gadhi for defensive battle. The enemy captured Dhaduwa Gadhi forcefully on 12th January 1763 and the Nepalese troops fell back to the Makawanpur Gadhi area. In the mean time Sardar Nandu Shah made a strong hold for defensive battle. He sent a message to King Prithvi Narayan Shah in Dahachok requesting reinforcement. Immediatley Kaji Vamsa Raj Pandey and Kaji Naharsingh Basnyat arrived with the required reinforcements in Makawanpur Gadhi.

    The enemy was in happy mood and resting in Dhaduwa Gadhi confident that they would defeat the Nepalese army. About 300 enemy soldiers launched a strong attack on 20th January 1763. The Nepalese army defended their level best and according to the progress of the battle, the enemy stopped the offensive and took a one-day rest in the Taplakhar area. That was a real chance for a spoiling attack by the Nepalese troops. They made a plan of attack from three different directions e.g. Kaji Vamsa Raj pandey led the Taplakhar axis for a downhill attack, Kaji Naharsingh Basnyat led from the old Makawanpur (tighlty uphill attack) direction. (There was a very good coordination between the troops of Makawanpur Gadhi too) and Nandu Shah led the frontal attacking troops. [xx] They launched a very good spoiling attack at a time and it was like a thunderbolt to the enemy as it was in the dark. They did not know what happened and they scattered everywhere and without resistance.

    As the result, about 1700 Indian soldiers were killed there and the Nepalese captured 500 rifles and 2 cannons with other military equipment. In addition, approximately 30 Nepalese soldiers died in that battle. It was the first battle against the better-equipped foreign enemy in Nepalese history and the begining of armed organisation of the Royal Nepalese Army, which aroused a great confidence among the Nepalese troops. Prithvi Narayan Shah is thus well proved as a good military strategist. He established five rifle companies after the battle as mentioned earlier. [xxi]

    Nepal-Company war

    The Nepal-Company war was a painful ordeal for Nepal. About half part of the existing Nepalese territory was lost in this war. Losing and winning battles is a universal truth and, battle tactics, war strategy and fighting skills of the troops are major measuring rods of any country. The Royal Nepalese Army fought defensive battles whole-heartedly against a far superior enemy force. The British had an interest in making a colony of Nepal but Nepal had never become a colonial country in history. They fought at a great cost of life and survived in a very difficult and adverse situation. They proved their fighting quality and courage in the world. Some major aspects of British strategy are given below: [xxii]
    1. Military operations against Nepal should progress with a view to reaching as far as the Kathmandu valley.
    2. The whole of Kumaun and Garhwal, Bushair in Himanchal Pradesh hills states with adjoining Tibet was to be captured.
    3. On top of that, other areas were to be freed from Gorkha control.
    4. The Sikh and Marathas were to be contained through alliance and the Chinese were also to be assured that there was no permanent territorial interest of the British in Nepal and the maneuver was temporary.

    Taking the aim to meet the higher strategy, British made a detail the plan. They wanted to have offensive thrust to Nepal through a wide front, which was to divide the Nepalese military force in fragments through many defensive battles. They had very large armed force with far superior weaponry to that of Nepal so, their major objectives and commanders of the troops is given below:-

    1. Major General Bannet Marley: First (1st) division was under him and his aim was to seize the pass at Makawanpur, preliminary advancing to Kathmandu to capture it.
    2. Major General John Sullivan Wood: Second (2nd) division was under him and his aim was to secure Butawal, hence to Palpa and advance to Kathmandu, where it was to link up with the first division.
    3. Major General Rollow Gilliespie: Third (93rd) division was under his control and his aim was to advance to Deharadun via Saharanpur and then to Srinagar. He was to operationally controled under Ochterlory as he advanced up to Nahan-Subathu.
    4. Colonel David Ochterlony: He was given fourth (4th) division and his aim was to advance through Bilaspur to Ramgadh, Arki/Malaun - Subathu-Jaithak and to link with Gilliespie's troops.
    5. Captain B Latter: He was given approximately 2400 troops. His main aim was to secure a firm base and providing flank protection to Major General Marley's troops from eastern direction.

    The British had a huge army. They had 10 times more superior troops and were 100 times more superior in weapons. But they lacked battle confidence and courage. The (approximately) initial British strength to launch an offensive against Nepal was as follows. [xxiii]
    1. Infantry              4061 Europeans 310008 Natives = 314069
    2. Cavalry               664
    3. Dromedary          200
    4. Artillery               3628
    5. Pioneers             843
    6. Private Followers  1,50,000 (for logistic support)
    7. Artillery Pieces     106 (guns and cannon)
    8. Field Guns           47
    9. Howitzers             20
    10. Siege Guns          14
    11. Mortars               23

    Nepal was in difficulty due to shortage of war materials because; they had had a continuous expedition march of unification and fought with Chinese and Tibetan army. Huge resources had been spent in that war and now they had to fight against the British. Even the fighting commanders of Royal Nepalese Army could not have coordination it in time due to lack of time and that troops were scattered in many places from east Tista River to west Alakhananda River in Gardhwal. Nepal had approximately 14,000 troops (grand total) with few skilful persons. [xxiv] They had some pieces of cannons and rifles (approximately 4000). So, they had much less man and weapon power than the British.

    First Campaign

    Major General Bannet Marley and his Ability
    First Time
    (1) Indian and European artillery 868
    (2) HM's 24th/ 41st Wales 907
    (3) The 3 Indian Battalions 1/8 NI, 1/12 NI and 1/25th NI 3050
    (4) Grenadiers Company 2
    (5) Light Company 2 7989
    (6) Pioneer Company 1
    (1) 18 Pounder Gun 2
    (2) 4.6 Punder Gun 8
    (3) 42/5 Howitzer 10
    (4) 43 Punder Gun 8
    (5) 2 42/5 inch Mortars 6
    (6) 5 ½ inch Mortars 6
    (7) 3 inch Howitzer 6
    (8) Captain B. Later and his 2400 troops were given on call of Major General Marley.
    Second Time
    (1) Marley was weaker with a very weak heart. He could not move forward with given (above) troops, as he did not have confidence to fight against Nepalese troops with the numbers given to him so he demanded a heavier reinforcement. So that he would be able to conduct an offensive against Nepalese army then, he was provided the following additional troops. [xxvi]
    (a) European Battalion 2
    (b) Grenadiers Company 10
    (c) Native Infantry (Tirhut) Battalion 1
    (d) A large column of elephants from Wazir of Oudh.

    By now, he had 12000 troops for his offensive against Makawanpur and Hariharpur axis. A big firm base (attack base) was established to the home Bank of India. Small clashes took place between two opposition parties and many British soldiers were wounded and some were killed. Major General Marley bargained to have a limited and a narrow frontage of objectives with his higher authority. He delayed under the pretension of many hygiene and physical problems and would not move forward. His superiors passed many threatening letters to him, but despite this the offensive operations did not progress.

    Finally, Major General George Wood took over the military command from Major General Marley. [xxvii] This was a great insult to the East India Company and Marley himself. Major General George Wood was known as "TIGER" in the British army but he was also not willing to fight against the Royal Nepalese Army. It was the reality of British courage and morale and they were afraid of the Nepalese army, their courage and the Khukuri. In fear and trembling, tge "TIGER" started marching with the troops very slowly. Colonel Ranabir Singh Thapa was launching a mobile defensive offensive operation in Bara Gadhi (fort). His main defence was in the Hetauda area and he was luring the enemy to his selected fighting area. However, Major General Wood did not move forward from Bara Gadhi and he fell back to Betiya where he could do nothing. Later, he was provided and secured a large firm base to Major General David Ochterlony in second invasion campaign for Makawanpur and Hariharpur axis. [xxviii]

    Deployment of Nepalese Troops in First Campaign

    Nepal had not deliberately prepared for war against the British but because of the situation was forced into the war. Colonel Ranabir Singh Thapa (brother of Bhimsen Thapa) was detailed for Sector Commander of Makawanpur-Hariharpur axis. He was given the responsibility of the very large front but many other subordinate commanders were ordered for defensive battle from Hariharpur Gadhi to Uparding Gadhi. It means, Hariharpur Gadhi, Makawanpur Gadhi, Dhunge Gadhi, Chisapani Gadhi, Kandrang Gadhi, Upardang Gadhi, Sinchyang Gadhi, Bara Gadhi were the AOR (Area of Responsibility) of Colonel Ranabir Singh Thapa and he was the overall commander of the defensive battle. He was provided about 4000 troops with old rifles and few pieces of cannons. [xxix] British force could not move forward from border until that time.

    Second Campaign

    Deployment of Nepalese Troops and British Offensive

    Colonel Bakhtabarsingh Thapa (the next brother of Bhimsen Thapa) was appointed as Sector Commander for defensive battle. As mentioned earlier, he was Sector Commander of Bijaypur to Sindhuli Gadhi area in the first campaign. Now, Bada Kaji Amarsingh Thapa was detailed as Sector Commander of Sindhuli Gadhi in the second campaign and eastern front too. The British had given a 15 days ultimatum to sign a treaty by Nepal Durbar on 28th November. The points of treaty were very difficult to ratify and it was delayed and the British commenced the second military campaign against Nepal. Colonel Bakhtabarsingh Thapa was manning his headquarter in Makawanpur Gadhi.

    The very clever Major General (Colonel in first campaign) David Ochterlony was the overall commander against Nepal with a huge number of British troops in Upardang Gadhi, Sinchyang Gadhi- Kandrang Gadhi- Makawanpur Gadhi and Hariharpur Gadhi front. [xxx] Kaji Ranajor Thapa (Area Commander of Jaithak in first campaign) was detailed as the commander of Hariharpur Gadhi under Colonel Bakhtabarsingh Thapa. The British force gave a large thrust against Makawanpur Gadhi and Hariharpur Gadhi front. [xxxi]

    The Royal Nepalese Army tried very hard to engage in a defensive battle. Many enemy soldiers had infiltrated into the Mahabharat range from Kandrang Gadhi to Chisapani Gadhi. Finally, they arrived just 5 kilometres south of Makawanpur Gadhi e.g. Chaughada area. Likewise, the Nepalese armies were driven away from Hariharpur Gadhi after the big battle. Now the situation was very critical for Nepal and British could have reached Kathmandu if the, signing of the treaty was delayed. Some British troops had reached Dhunge Gadhi (approximately 5 kilometre, uphill south east of Makawanpur Gadhi) by infiltration. [xxxii] By the time, Major General David Ochterlony settled down the issue of the treaty, signed through Nepal Durbar from Chandra Sekhar Upadhyaya, Pandit Gajaraj Mishra and finally through Bakhtabarsingh Thapa. The war was over and Nepalese lost approximately half of the Nepalese territory. Mechi River and Mahakali River were made the boundary of Nepal. The treaty is called 'Treaty of Sugauli' and it is painful for Nepal as large areas of Nepalese territories were annexed into India. The Nepalese fought with the British but not with India so, India does not know the real pain of the Treaty of Sugauli.

    [i] Terrain analysis was done from physical study of the ground.
    [ii] Ibid.
    [iii] The description has given by field visit.
    [iv] "#G^f d+qL === dflgs ;]g"
    [v] "1965 ;fn h]& 28 ut] /f]h 2 df ==== >L j+zuf]kfn hLnfO{ r(f sf"
    [vi] Local Ward Chairman, Sukbir Lama provided the information.
    [vii] RNA's guard commander of the Gadhi provided the information.
    [viii] Krishna Neupane, "Butawol Ra Nuwakot ko Aitihasik Pakshya Lai Khotalda," Butawol (Butawol Ustav Bisesanka) Butawol Municipality, BS 2055, pp. 18-19.
    [ix] Sharma, Vaidya & Manandhar (eds.), f.n. No. 44, p. 351.
    [x] Bista, f.n. No. 30. p. 70 (the scribe also reached to that area).
    [xi] Ibid., pp. 70-71.
    [xii] Local Ward Chairman gave the details.
    [xiii] Ram Mani Dahal, "Itihas ko Euta Kalakhanda," Gorkhapatra, (19th Asar, BS 2055).
    [xiv] Krishna Paudel, "Aitihasik Makawanpur Gadhi Durbar," Himalaya Times, (23rd Asar, BS 2055).
    [xv] Prem Singh Basnyat, Shahi Nepali Sena Ra pradhan Senapatiharu, (Kathmandu: Laxmi Basnyat and Sarwochcha Man Singh Basnyat, BS 2053), pp. 50-51.
    [xvi] Ibid.
    [xvii] Sharma Vaidya & Manandhar (eds.) f.n. No. 44, pp. 352-354.
    [xviii] Basnyat, f.n. No. 97, pp. 10-11.
    [xix] Ibid. p. 350.
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